Manage Your Liver
Q:

Types of Liver Enzymes – How much do you know about them?

Types of Liver Enzymes – How much do you know about them?
A:

The liver is one of the five vital organs in the human body that are essential for survival, without which many of our bodily functions cannot take place. And in liver cells, various liver enzymes play an important role in completing different tasks on a daily basis. They are namely ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT.

Types of liver enzymes

Liver enzymes

Where they are found

Function

Significance in liver blood test

Normal range in a healthy individual (U/L - units per litre)*

AST (Aspartate Transaminase)

Found in various organs like liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles, and brain

Catalyses a type of amino acids which can then be used for energy production

Not a very specific indicator of liver injuries because of its presence in many other organs

5 to 40 U/L

ALT (Alanine Transaminase)

Largely concentrated in the liver and some in kidneys

Converts amino acids for the process of cellular energy production

A reliable indicator of liver damage

7 to 56 U/L

ALP (Alkaline Phosphtatase)

Found mostly in the bile ducts of the liver and in bone

Helps break down protein

A helpful indicator to identify problems with the liver and gallbladder

45 to 115 U/L

GGT (Gamma-glutamyl transferase)

Mostly found in the liver, however it is also present in the gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys

Transfers amino acids across cell membranes

A reliable indicator for liver disease, especially on alcohol use

9 to 48 U/L

*Please note that the normal range listed here is only a rough guideline, as it varies among laboratories and countries.

 

Causes of elevated enzymes

Since the four enzymes have different functions in the liver, each elevated enzyme signifies different underlying causes. 

AST/ALT ratio

AST/ALT ratio can provide insights to the patterns of liver diseases. In a study conducted by Pelagia Research Libary that compares levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT in patients of various liver injuries, the following AST/ALT ratio was found.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Generally speaking, healthy individuals would have an AST/ALT ratio of around 1. Any ratio higher than 2 suggests alcoholic liver disease. On the contrary, viral hepatitis patients would have an AST/ALT ratio of less than 1.0. As for non-alcoholic liver disease, patients would have an AST/ALT ratio of 2.0 or higher.

ALP

There are various reasons to account for an elevated ALP. In terms of liver-related causes, biliary obstruction, hepatic tumour, and viral hepatitis are common. 

GGT

An increased level of GGT suggests hepatocellular injury, which is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Alcohol ingestion also attributes to GGT elevation. 

Mildly elevated enzymes – What to do?

Among all the patients with elevated enzymes, not all show significant increases. When it comes to mildly elevated enzymes, it refers to having less than 5 times of the upper limit of normal levels. According to a study done by American Family Physician that focuses on the causes and evaluation of mildly elevated enzymes in asymptomatic patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause, with other causes being alcoholic liver disease, medication-associated liver injury, and viral hepatitis. And unsurprisingly, alcohol was found to be the cause of mildly elevated enzymes in 10% of 256 asymptomatic patients in a study conducted on the general Swedish population. 

If patients are found to have mildly elevated enzymes, a physical examination and repeat testing in 2 to 4 weeks are recommended. Common causes such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should be ruled out, followed by observing the lifestyle and considering less common causes. If none of this helps, liver biopsy should be considered. 

While mild enzyme elevations might not always have serious underlying causes, it is always a good measure to prevent liver enzyme levels from going up further, this can be achieved by scientifically- proven liver therapy. Like treatments to many other diseases, prevention is always better than cure. 

Contact our support team to find out more about liver protection.

Disclaimer:
  • * All research and clinical data should be used as reference purposes only, results may vary.
Related Questions
A:
Many of us are familiar with the word ‘antioxidant’. It appears everywhere on the internet, TV commercials, food advertisement, health channels, and even in cosmetic products. While we have heard from everywhere that antioxidants have a positive health effect on our body, but what do they actually do in terms of promoting liver health?   What is oxidative stress? To have a better understanding of what antioxidants are and what pa
A:
Patients with liver diseases often experience different symptoms such as chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, itchy skin, and sleeping disturbances etc. In the western way of treatment, each problem or symptom is tackled individually, leading patients to take multiple medications which cause burden to the body with side effects. However, from the eastern medical point of view, every organ in the body is interconnected. Therefore when tackling various symptoms experienced by liver dise
Hit Questions
A:
The liver carries out essential functions, including detoxifying harmful substances in your body, cleaning your blood and making new blood and other vital nutrients. Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver caused by long-term liver damage. The loss of liver cells turns into scar tissue which prevents the liver working normally, reducing or in some cases, completely losing liver function. Cirrhosis is a long-term chronic liver damage; it is often caused by chronic live
A:
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase / SGPT) is a type of enzyme found in liver cells. When the liver cells are functioning normally, the ALT enzymes should be contained within the liver cells.    You can imagine each liver cells as a balloon, and the ALT enzymes are the air inside the balloon. When the balloon is damaged, the air will be released. And when the liver cells is damaged, ALT enzymes are released into the bloodstream, therefore we are able to find out the l
A:
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase / SGPT) is an enzyme that is mainly found in liver cells. The level of ALT in our bloodstream is the primary indicator of liver health.   What does high ALT indicate? ALT enzymes are normally contained within liver cells when the liver is healthy, but when the liver cells are injured or damaged by whatever means, ALT enzymes are released into the bloodstream, causing levels to go up. Therefore, by measuring the
A:
Fibrosis is scarring of the liver that results from chronic inflammation. It is a process where the damaged, dying liver cells are replaced by fibrous scar tissue, causing the liver to become hard. The extent of liver fibrosis can vary, and it is often classified in several stages. The most common classification is a scale from F0 to F4. F0 indicates no fibrosis. A normal liver is at a stage between F0 and F1. F2 denotes light fibrosis, and F3 indicates severe fibrosis. When scar tissue build
YHK Liver Therapy
Your Liver
Protection

starts here.
Buy YHK
Have Questions?
Sumbit your question to us for profeessional answers!
Looking for help? Ask our customer support team!
Contact Us
Subscribe To Our Mailing List And
Never Miss Another Great Promotion!
Join our mailing list to receive latest new about our company, plus health articles. You will also be able to receive early bird discount from us!
Maybe Later, Thank you.
Subscribe success! You will receive latest new soon.